ASGP (2022), vol. 92: 411–424



Faculty of Geology, University of Warsaw, ul. Żwirki i Wigury 93, 02-089 Warszawa, Poland; e-mail:

Gajewska, M., 2022. Middle Devonian Foraminifera from the Holy Cross Mountains. Annales Societatis Geologorum Poloniae, 92: 411–424.

Abstract: The Middle Devonian was an exceptional time for foraminiferal evolution because of the emergence of the first true calcareous multilocular taxa. Despite being key forms for an understanding of the origin of foraminiferal multilocularity, which is one of the most intriguing events in the evolutionary history of the group, they are largely unstudied. These unique foraminifera, including representatives of the genera Cremsia, Moravammina, Pseudopalmula, Semitextularia, and Vasicekia, are presented herein as well as foraminifer-like microfossils of uncertain biological position. The studied material comes from the Middle Givetian strata of the Miłoszów section and the Eifelian part of the Grzegorzowice-Skały section (Holy Cross Mountains, Poland). Described isolated specimens are in an exceptionally good state of preservation on a worldwide scale, which enabled the detailed analysis of test morphologies, complementing previous papers based on less well-preserved material. The suggested systematics of the foraminifera collected attempts to revise scarce taxonomic data that is still under debate, especially the classification of Moravammina, Cremsia, and Vasicekia. The Devonian foraminifers presented were prominent endobenthic and epibenthic inhabitants of common organic coral-stromatoporoid buildups. Palaeobiogeographical records show that during the Middle Devonian, the studied forms extended their exclusive European distribution into further Laurussian shelves and shallow seas, located in the northern and southeastern parts of the Rheic basin. This assumes that such assemblages may be used as palaeoenvironmental indicators. However, at present, their correlative potential is unknown.

Manuscript received 15 September 2022, accepted 29 November 2022